I.N.R.A. - Centre de Recherches de Toulouse
Comportement et Écologie de la Faune Sauvage (C.E.F.S.)
BP 52627 - 31326 Castanet-Tolosan cedex (France)
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: +33 (0)4 72 44 85 83
I completed my PhD degree at the University of Lyon (Lab “Biometry and Evolutionary Biology”, France), under the direction of Pr. Dominique Allainé and Pr. Jon Swenson from the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) in 2009. My work has focused on spatial ecology of European brown bear (Ursus arctos), from individual movements to population distribution in the context of multiple-use landscapes. My work had both theoretical (in movement ecology and space use) and applied components (in conservation ecology and management).
During my postdoctoral position at the university of the Witwatersrand, School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences (APES), I have been working with Pr. Norman Owen-Smith on Spatial Ecology of large African herbivores. I focused on bottom-up and top-down influences on their fine-scale movements.
I currently have a postdoctoral position at the National Institute of Agronomic Research (INRA) in the Behaviour and Ecology of Wildlife unit. I work with Dr. Nicolas Morellet on Spatial Ecology of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a multiple-use landscape. I develop dynamic connectivity maps at the population scale and investigate fine-scale response to environmental features and anthropogenic activities.
Area of focus
- Spatial ecology
- Movement ecology
- Behavioural ecology
- Conservation ecology
My research focus on the understanding of movements and habitat selection of large mammals at different spatial and temporal scales. In particular, I’m interested in coupling movement and habitat selection to gain insights into behavioral processes involved in habitat selection. I aim at relating fine-scale processes to large scale distribution patterns.
On a more applied point of view, habitat selection is an important field of conservation biology. With the constant increase of human impact on wildlife habitat (e.g. fragmentation of habitats, modification of habitat), conservationists and managers need to get insights into habitat requirements of wildlife in human disturbed landscapes. I am particularly interested in studying the impact of human on wildlife habitats and its consequences, and in developing approaches for spacially explicit habitat models for conservation purposes.
Postdoctoral project 2
The objective of my current postdoctoral project is two-fold: (1) to develop dynamic habitat connectivity maps for roe deer in the Aurignac (France) population, that account for variation of environmental conditions and anthropogenic activities. The second objective (2) is to quantify variations of habitat selection behaviour at the individual scale and determine their causes. The results will led to a better understanding of habitat connectivity for roe deer, insights that will eventually be implemented to study the influence of roe deer on tick abundance in the landscape.
Postdoctoral project 1
My postdoctoral project lies within the broad context of identifying the determinants of population decline of less common herbivore species in the Kruger National Park, and in particular, the influence of resources and predation.
The more specific aim of the project is to investigate processes driving movement behaviour and space use by comparing 4 species of large African herbivores: common species (the wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, the buffalo Syncerus caffer and the zebra Equus burchelli) and a declining species (the Sable antelope Hyppotragus niger). Both of these species are large grazers, but they differ in their herd sizes. While buffalo move in large herds numbering 100-500 individuals, wildebeest occur in much smaller herds typically numbering 15-30 animals, sable antelopes in herds of 10-20 individuals and zebra in herds numbering 6-10 individuals.
This contrast is expected to lead to fundamental differences in their movement rates, residence times in particular patches, and return times to previously exploited patches. Resource use by different herbivore species raises exciting questions on behavioural processes underlying habitat selection. Herbivores exploit different vegetation types with varying selectivity which vary according to species and may rely on the capacity to stay longer in high profitable place and/or come back more frequently on such places (Owen-Smith et al. 2015a and Owen-Smith et al. 2015b. The equilibrium between these 2 possibilities being imposed by relative productivity and regenerating capacities of these places and herd size influences. My postdoc project therefore aimed at comparing movements processes of different herbivore species (Martin et al. 2015; Martin et al. 2016 - In press - and Traill et al. 2016 - In press -) to identify behavioural decision rules involved, and to relate fine-scale movement processes to seasonal home-ranges.
In my thesis (pdf available here), I studied habitat selection and movement ecology of brown bear at different spatial scales and mainly in two European populations (Scandinavian and Pyreneean populations). These populations have very different conservation statuses and are distributed in contrasting landscapes, differentially impacted by anthropogenic pressure. The Scandinavian population is now expanding and reached more than 3000 individuals in 2009. The population is located in a heavily managed boreal forest, with important forest logging and associated road network. The Pyrenean population is still threaten to extinction with an estimated number of 20 individuals only, divided in three isolated groups.
The objectives of my thesis were, for the Scandinavian population, to assess the influence of habitat types and anthropogenic structures on bear habitat selection and movement at fine spatial and temporal scales (Martin et al. 2010 and Martin et al. 2013) to understand how expanding human infrastructures and activity influence bear behaviour, to be able to anticipate potential conflicts between humans and this large carnivores.
Concerning the Pyrenean population, the objective was to assess and quantify suitables habitats for bears at the population level to identify areas that should be protected or areas for potential new release of individuals. I therefore developped a new approach combining large- and fine-scale resolution spatially explicit habitat models for bears in Pyrenees (Martin et al. 2012).
I have also been working on more methodological considerations, the use of autocorelation in habitat selection studies (Martin et al. 2008, Martin et al. 2009).
- Martin J. & Owen-Smith N. 2016. Habitat selectivity influences the reactive responses of African ungulates to encounters with lions. Animal Behaviour, 116:163-170. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.04.003.
- Traill L.W., Martin J. & Owen-Smith N. 2016. Lion proximity, not moon phase, affects the nocturnal movement behaviour of zebra and wildebeest. Journal of Zoology, early view. doi:10.1111/jzo.12343.
- Owen-Smith N. & Martin J. 2015. Identifying space use at foraging arena scale within the home ranges of large herbivores. PLoS ONE, 10(6): e0128821.
- Owen-Smith N., Martin J. & Yoganand K. 2015. Spatially nested niche partitioning between syntopic grazers at foraging arena scale within overlapping home ranges. Ecosphere, 6(9):152.
- Martin J., Benhamou S., Yoganand K. & Owen-Smith N. 2015. Coping with spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability in resources and risks: adaptive movement behaviour by a large grazing herbivore. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0118461. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118461.
- Nawaz M.A., Martin J. & Swenson J. E. 2014. Identifying key habitats to conserve the threatened brown bear in the Himalaya. Biological Conservation, 170:198-206. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.12.031.
- Martin, J., B. Rey, J.-B. Pons, E. Natoli & Pontier D. 2013. Movements and space use of feral cats in Kerguelen archipelago: a pilot study with GPS data. Polar Biology, 36:1531-1536. doi:10.1007/s00300-013-1365-x .
- Basille B., van Moorter B., Herfindal I., Martin J., Linnell J.D.C., Odden J., Andersen R. & Gaillard J.-M. 2013. Selecting habitat to survive: the impact of road density on survival in a large carnivore. PLoS ONE 8(7): e65493. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065493.
- Martin J., Van Moorter B., Revilla E., Blanchard P., Dray S., Quenette P.-Y., Allainé D. & Swenson J. E. 2013. Reciprocal modulation of internal and external factors determines individual movements. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82:290-300. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2012.02038.x.
- Martin J., Revilla E., Quenette P.-Y., Naves J., Allainé D. & Swenson J. E. 2012. Brown bear habitat suitability in the Pyrenees: transferrability across sites and linking scales to make the most of scarce data. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49(3):621-631.
- Tolon, V., J. Martin, S. Dray, A. Loison C. Fischer & E. Baubet. 2012. Predator-prey spatial game as a tool to understand the effects of protected areas on harvester-wildlife interactions. Ecological Applications, 22(2):648-657.
- Martin, J., M. Basille, J. Kindberg, B. Van Moorter, D. Allainé & J.E. Swenson. 2010. Coping with human disturbance: spatial and temporal tactics of brown bear. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 88: 875-883.
- Martin, J., C. Calenge, P.-Y. Quenette & D. Allainé. 2008. Importance of movement constraints in habitat selection studies. Ecological Modelling 213:257-262.
- Nellemann, C., O.-G. Stoen, J. Kindberg, J. E. Swenson, I. Vistnes, G. Ericsson, J. Katajisto, B. P. Kaltenborn, J. Martin & A. Ordiz. 2007. Terrain use by an expanding brown bear population in relation to age, resorts and human settlements. Biological Conservation 138:157-165.
- Martin, J., V. Tolon, B. Van Moorter, M. Basille & C. Calenge. 2009. On the use of telemetry in habitat selection studies. In: “Telemetry: Research, Technology and Applications”. Editors Barculo D & Daniels J, Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Popularizing articles & reports
- Martin J., Decaluwe F. & Quenette P.-Y. 2013. Une estimation de la qualité de l’habitat pour l’ours brun dans les Pyrénées - Intérêts pour la gestion. Faune Sauvage 297: 36-40.
- Martin J., Quenette P.-Y., Camarra J.-J., Decaluwe F., Dubarry E. & Touchet P. 2008. Sélection de l’habitat par l’ours brun à différentes échelles spatiales. ONCFS, Rapport Scientifique, 2008: 48-49
Traill L.W., Martin J. & Owen-Smith. Nocturnal activity of blue wildebeest; predation, foraging and moon phase. March 2016. 14th Annual Savanna Science Networking Meeting, Kruger National Park (South Africa)
Swenson J.E., Ordiz A., Martin J., Steyeart S., Sahlen V., Stoen O.-G. & Kindberg J. How do 3,300 brown bears cope with 9.4 million Swedes? Nov. 2012. 21st International Conference on Bear Research and Management, New Dehli (India)
Martin J., Decaluwe F., Camarra J.-J., Ruiz-Olme J., Palazon S., Sola J. & Quenette P.-Y. Transboundary monitoring of large carnivore populations: the case of the brown bear in the Pyrenees. July 2012. IVth International Wildlife Management Conference, Durban (South Africa)
Martin J., Revilla E., Quenette P.-Y., Naves J., Allainé D. & Swenson J. E. Combining spatial scales to assess the suitable habitats of very small populations: the case of the brown bear in the Pyrenees. Sept. 2011. Spatial Ecology and Conservation, Birmingham (United Kingdom)
Martin J. Movements and habitat selection of brown bears in multiple-use landscapes - Implications in conservation and management. March 2011. Invited seminar, School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)
Martin J., Basille M., Kindberg J., Van Moorter B., Allainé D. & Swenson J. E. Scale-dependent effects of human disturbance on large mammals: brown bears in Scandinavia. March 2009, Le Réveil du Dodo III, Journées Francophones des Sciences de la Conservation de la Biodiversité, Montpellier (France)
- Martin J., Benhamou S., Yoganand K. & Owen-Smith N. Residence time and recursions to previously visited areas: understanding fine-scale processes of resource use restricting a formerly migratory population of wildebeest. July 2012. IVth International Wildlife Management Conference, Durban (South Africa)
- Martin J., Benhamou S., Yoganand K. & Owen-Smith N. Multi-scale spatial dynamic of resource use by wildebeest in west-central Kruger National Park. March 2012. Savanna Science Network Meeting, Kruger National Park (South Africa)
- Martin J., Yoganand K., Benhamou S. & Owen-Smith N. Partial migration of wildebeest in the Kruger National Park: insights from movement segmentation at different spatial scales. September 2011. Spatial Ecology and Conservation, Birmingham (United Kingdom)